281-300 failed to complete project. This will be added as soon
as there is time to research and compose the notes.]
301. May hear his speech
in a foreign tone
I.e., the president now greets
the visitors in Latin, which nobody any longer understands. Only
members of society that had an education were able to understand
and speak Latin fluently.
301. as lawyers swear
I.e., They do not understand,
but are willing to interpret the speech as a plea to alter the
301. a lot of parchments
It's a joke: the custom of
handing out diplomas to graduates originated in this episode
of the "breaking of the will."
"A supplement to a will,
added by the testator for the purpose of explanation, alteration,
or revocation of the original contents." (OED)
302. mean dispositions
Play on words with the connotation
of the word "mean." It depends on two different senses.
It can refer to the average temperature of an area or the climate
or culture, in which a person grows up.
302. Cry of a locust
"Locusts are the swarming
phase of certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the
family Acrididae." (Wikipedia)
"A man who works in or
with tin; a tinsmith; a dealer in tin-ware." (OED)
302. Sierra Leone
"Sierra Leone, officially
the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa that
is bordered by Guinea to the northeast, Liberia to the southeast,
and the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest." (Wikipedia)
303. Quaestum Corporate
It literarily means to gain
through a body. It is to make profit or take advantage of another
The origin is unknown, but
it originally means "shoemaker" or "shoemaker's
apprentice", and had nothing to do with nobility or superiority/inferiority.
It didn't begin to take on its modern meaning until after William
Thackeray's "Book of Snobs" was published in the mid
1800s. By 1911 it had acquired its current meaning. Its current
meaning refers to a person who seeks to be, or is, a member of
the upper class and looks down on lower classes, such as the
middle class or the poor. They are often egotistical individuals
who tend to think of people as inferior, particularly of those
who do not belong to their clique or class. (Wikipedia)
303. Negatur minor ["I
deny your minor proposition"]
Syllogism: "An argument
expressed or claimed to be expressible in the form of two propositions
called the premises, containing a common or middle term, with
a third proposition called the conclusion, resulting necessarily
from the other two." (OED)
303. Their houses every day
The custom of admitting visitors
to British "great houses" for paid tickets had just
begun at this period.
"Here the autocrat refers
to the press. "An army officer ranking immediately below
a lieutenant, typically the most junior commissioned officer;
the rank held by such an officer. Now chiefly hist." (OED)
The epithet mentioned above.
The answer the autocrat gives to this criticism, "Poh."
"An adjective indicating
some quality or attribute which the speaker or writer regards
as characteristic of the person or thing described." (OED).
"A collection of wild
animals in cages or enclosures, esp. one kept for exhibition,
as in a zoo, etc. Also: a place or building in which such a collection
303. The talking-bird's
The autocrat uses the image
of the talking bird to illustrate the menagerie or zoo formed
by the uneducated people who talk in a vulgar manner.
303. The nightingale's
The autocrat uses the image
of the nightingale to show that England's royalty is taking part
of this menagerie or exhibition in the public field.
304. Laus Deo!
" Latin for praise be
to God." (Merriam Webster).
304. Transparent-bell glass
By putting a bell jar, women
are of marriageable age. Society becomes an arrangement. In this
way marriage becomes orderly, which is cruel and experiment like.
304. We was keepin' company
This is the rural idiom for
304. She cal'lated
The text captures the manner
in which the landlady speaks that is common and filled with ordinary
expressions. This signals, endearingly, the landlady's social
304. That could not have been
The autocrat thinks the landlady
is thinking about the schoolmistress future as a wife. The landlady's
motherly instincts emerge as she shows concern for the schoolmistress.
But she has nothing to worry about now that the schoolmistress
will be financially well off after marrying the autocrat.
305. "Book of Martyrs"
"The Actes and Monuments, popularly known as Foxe's Book
of Martyrs, is a work of Christian history and martyrology by
John Foxe, first published in English in 1563 by John Day. It
includes a polemical account of the sufferings of Protestants
under the Catholic Church, with particular emphasis on England
and Scotland." (Wikipedia)
305. Dry-pan . Oven like metal
used to torture Protestants. The Autocrat is alluding to the
dry pan from the Book of Martyrs.
"The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the
judicial system of the Roman Catholic Church whose aim was to
"fight against heretics". It started in 12th-century
France to combat the spread of heresy and error, and was later
expanded to other European countries as well as throughout the
Spanish and Portuguese empires in the Americas, Asia and Africa."
305. Who not only wear the crown of thorns, but most hide it
under the locks of brown and gray
A metaphor that alludes to the sacrifices made by people who
suffer. E.g., the old men and women who suffer and nobody cares
about their suffering.
305. Snowy cap
Characteristic of women who wear it, which indicates that the
hair started to become thinner. Therefore, elderly women would
hide the fact that they were aging and suffering under the cap.
305. Chilling turban (ditto)
306. Singing women
I.e., women poets of the period.
306. "all sounds of life assume one tone of love."
Line number 21 from Elizabeth's Browning poem L.E.L Last Question
306. Sappho's memory-haunted billow
The autocrat is identifying with women who had been silent and
find a voice through poetry. I.e., Elizabeth Browning one of
the greatest females poets of that time.
307. "Come rest in this boo-boo"
The word boo-boo means bosom. This phrase comes from a song named
"God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen", also known as "God
Rest Ye Merry, Gentlemen." It is an English traditional
Christmas carol. The melody is in the minor mode. It was published
by William B. Sandys in 1833, although the author is unknown.
307. Mourning Fruit
There is a complicated symbolism, in which black signifies grieving.
It is mourning fruit as to show that they are very sorry and
will miss their loved ones. The autocrat and the schoolmistress
are getting married, thus the people of the breakfast table are
sad because the couple will be leaving soon.
307. Huckleberries and blackberries
These are the mourning fruit mentioned above. These fruits are
dark and resemble the sorrow and sadness of losing the beloved
companion of the autocrat and the schoolmistress of the breakfast
table because of their marriage.
308. "lucent syrups tinct with cinnamon"
John Keats's Eve of St. Agnes poem
308. with the hall mark
The official mark or stamp used by statutory Hall-marking Authorities
in marking the standard of gold and silver articles assayed by
them, without which articles of these metals may not legally
be sold. (OED)
308. in the green stage of
The vulgar nouveaux riches or "new rich."
308. Esther bowed herself
The landlady is reading a chapter of the Book of Esther. Esther
the wife of King Ahasuerus bows herself before the feet of her
husband as she learns that her people are in danger. She risks
her life to save the Jews living in Ancient Persia. This is symbolic
of humbleness and loyalty. (Wikipedia)
310. vein of charity
small silver and copper basis
Vein as in vein of ore. This is symbolic of the schoolmistress'
charitable character. The schoolmistress gives money to the poor
even though she has very little to offer, which will change after
310. rent roll
"A roll or register of rents; a list of lands and buildings
owned by a person, together with the rents due from them; (also)
the sum of a person's income from the rents that are due to him
or her." (OED)
310. Angel missing in the Jerusalem
The schoolmistress is the embodiment of humbleness and beauty
for the autocrat.
311. Cupid in a mouse-trap
Joke: Cupid is the Roman God of love. In this case, the schoolmistress
has finally trapped the autocrat. This is a visual representation
of marriage and signals its confinement and restrictions.
311. Tupper's poems
"Martin Farquhar Tupper (July 17, 1810, London November
1889, Albury, Surrey) was an English writer, and poet, and the
author of Proverbial Philosophy, long series of didactic moralisings."
This suggests the kind of literary and intellectual taste of
the landlady's daughter. She often tries to appear knowledgeable
by reading these kinds of books that were popular and not so
311. On the eve of her union in holy matrimony
The standard formula a person would write in a book when someone
was getting married similar to a hallmark card today.
A Gentile who has converted to Judaism. (OED)
312. Cashmere shawl
A costly shawl made of fine soft wool obtained from the Cashmere
goat and the wild goat of western China. (OED)
312. Young supercargo
"A representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant
ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale. Formerly
also: an agent who superintended a company's business abroad."
313. Unavoidably absent on this interesting occasion
The professor and Poet are alter egos of the autocrat, and cannot
be physically present on the same occasion. The word interesting
means: "That concerns, touches, affects, or is of importance;
311. not a churchman
The autocrat was not a member of the Anglican Church.
312. oaks in flower-pots
It is a metaphor: "orthodox" religious doctrines confine
religious belief, as would an oak planted in a flowerpot.
306. Letitia Landon
"Letitia Elizabeth Landon (14 August 1802 15 October
1838), English poet and novelist, better known by her initials
L. E. L." (Wikipedia)
306. Elizabeth Browning
Elizabeth Barrett Browning (6 March 1806 29 June 1861)
was one of the most prominent poets of the Victorian era. Her
poetry was widely popular in both England and the United States
during her lifetime. (Wikipedia)
Persian King (Wikipedia)
Quotes and Allusions
309. "If it please the king"
Bible, Book of Esther, chapter 8 verse 5.
311. "The Whole Duty of Man."
"Is an English Protestant devotional work, first published
anonymously, with an introduction by Henry Hammond, in 1658.
It was both popular and influential for two centuries, in the
Anglican tradition it helped to define." (Wikipedia)
The poor relative wrapped the book in a fashionable manner in
an effort to impress and give something valuable to the married
311. Keble's Christian Year
"It is a series of poems for all the Sundays and some other
feasts of the liturgical year of the Church of England written
by John Keble in 1827. The book is the source for several hymns,
and the work was extremely popular in the 19th century."
311. Xavier's "My God, I love thee"
"Words: Author unknown (O Deus, ego amo te); translated
from Latin to English Edward Caswall, Lyra Catholica, 1849. The
original is reportedly a Spanish sonnet which begins, No me mueve,
mi Dios, para quererte; it appeared in Diepenbrock's Geistlicher
Blumenstrauss (1829), attributed to Francis Xavier."
312. "God only and good angels look"
John Keble's Christian Year.
312. "He could not trust his melting soul."
John Keble's Christian Year.
312. "Calcutta 1805"
I.e., the old man gentleman started life as an "Indian merchant"